Ecosystem services

Ecosystem services are the numerous and diverse benefits that people openly benefit from the natural surroundings and also from properly-functioning ecosystems. Such ecosystems contain, by way of instance, agroecosystems, forest ecosystems, grassland ecosystems and aquatic ecosystems. These ecosystems working properly supplies such matters such as agricultural produce, lumber, and aquatic organisms including fishes and fishes. Together, these advantages have become called'ecosystem services', and are frequently essential to the provisioning of fresh drinking water, the decomposition of wastes, as well as also the natural pollination of plants and other crops. Supporting services comprise services like nutrient cycling, primary production, soil formation, habitat supply and pollination.

Habitat Conservation

Habitat conservation for wild species is among the most crucial problems facing the environment today - both in the sea and on land. As human populations increase, land usage grows, and wild species have smaller distances to call house. Over fifty percent of all Earth's terrestrial surface was changed because of human activity, leading to extreme deforestation, erosion and loss of topsoil, biodiversity loss, and even extinction. Species can't survive out their normal habitat with no human intervention, like the habitats within a zoo or aquarium, such as. Maintaining habitats is vital to maintaining biodiversity. Migratory species are especially vulnerable to habitat destruction since they have a tendency to occupy more than a natural habitat. Changing a natural habitat slightly may bring about a domino effect that hurts the whole ecosystem.

Supporting services

While scientists and environmentalists have discussed ecosystem solutions implicitly for a long time, the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA) from the early 2000s popularized this idea. Additionally, ecosystem services are grouped into four broad classes:
Supporting services
Provisioning

like the creation of water and food

Supporting services
Regulating

like the control of disease and climate

Supporting services
Encouraging

including nutrient cycles and oxygen generation

Supporting services
Ethnic

such as recreational and spiritual advantages

Your Connection to Wildlife

Official blog of the Canadian Wildlife Federation Your Connection to Wildlife

A Rube With A View

A blog about ecology and wildlife conservation

The ecosystem services blog

Analyses and comments on the science and practice of ecosystem services and biodiversity

World's diverse ecosystems

5 ways captivity is bad for giraffe wellbeing

Born Free is calling for European zoos to phase-out the keeping of giraffe in captivity and instead focus their conservation resources on the protection of giraffe populations in the wild.

The post 5 ways captivity is bad for giraffe wellbeing appeared first on Kate on Conservation.


Born Free is calling for European zoos to phase-out the keeping of giraffe in captivity and instead focus their conservation resources on the protection of giraffe populations in the wild.

The post 5 ways captivity is bad for giraffe wellbeing appeared first on Kate on Conservation.

Seven years ago this past week, a healthy, two-year-old giraffe called Marius was butchered in front of crowds of zoo visitors (including an audience of children) at Copenhagen Zoo.

Marius had been offered a place at a Yorkshire Zoo, but had met his end on a cold pavement slab, his limbs removed in front of a crowd of tourists and the juicy bits fed to the lions.

The zoo justified this action of culling and public dissection, claiming his genes were already represented in the captive giraffe population in Europe, and there was limited space available for young, male giraffe in zoos that were members of the European Association of Zoos and Aquaria (EAZA). Parts of his body were then fed to the zoo’s carnivores.

Remembering Marius 7 years on…

On the 7th anniversary of that appalling act, Born Free is calling for European zoos to phase-out the keeping of giraffe in captivity and instead focus their conservation resources on the protection of giraffe populations in the wild.

Dr Stephanie Jayson, Wild Animal Welfare Consultant for Born Free, commented: “A zoo is no place for giraffe, where these complex, social, wide-ranging, browsing animals are subjected to a life of social deprivation, environmental restrictions and inadequate nutrition.

A giraffe stands in a wet, muddy pen at Banham Zoo, Norfolk

As a result, giraffe in zoos frequently suffer compromised health and stereotypic behaviours. The ex situ management of giraffe in European zoos significantly impacts the welfare of the individual animals involved, and has no clear role in the overall conservation of the species.”

With an estimated captive population of more than 800 giraffe in zoos across Europe, including over 150 in the UK, Born Free’s call stems from a new report compiled by the international wildlife charity which highlights the detrimental physical and mental impact of captivity on giraffe.

Key summary points show multiple ways include:

1. Social deprivation

Wild giraffe live in complex societies. Females are incredibly sociable, forming long-term relationships with other females, as well as creating nursery groups for their offspring.

In contrast, many giraffe in captivity do not have the opportunity to form complex societies due to the limited capacity of zoos to house large communities of giraffe in a diverse landscape. Several zoos hold only one or two giraffe, including Knowsley Safari Park, Noah’s Ark Zoo Farm, Twycross Zoo and ZSL London Zoo in the UK.

Opportunities for female giraffe to form relationships with other females are limited. Several European zoos, including Dudley Zoological Gardens and ZSL London Zoo in the UK, hold just two female giraffe, while some hold only a single female.

2. Environmental restrictions 

Wild giraffe spend approximately a third of their day walking, and their average home range size varies between five and 514 km2. I

n comparison, outdoor enclosures in European zoos average around 2600 m2 (just over one quarter of a hectare or almost two thirds of an acre) – merely 0.0005-0.05% of the average home range size of wild giraffe.

Restricted space negatively impacts giraffe welfare and has been associated with problems such as overgrown hooves and stereotypic pacing. 

Add this to the temperate European climate, forcing giraffe to have their outdoor access restricted when outdoor temperatures fall too low, and a widespread lack of environmental complexity. 

Typically simplistic and bare, zoo enclosures for giraffe are incomparable to the African savanna and woodland habitats of wild giraffe.

3. Inadequate nutrition

Wild giraffe spend most of their day feeding on browse, predominantly the leaves and stems of trees and shrubs, as well as smaller amounts of climbers, herbs, flowers, fruits, and bark.

In European zoos, this is not possible. It is not feasible to provide a large amount and variety of browse so substitute food items must be offered, which can result in compromised health and welfare.

Many nutritional diseases have been reported in giraffe in European zoos and various aspects of the captive diet, and its presentation, have been associated with oral stereotypic behaviours.

Inappropriate food items such as cereal grain products, fruit and vegetables are still being fed to giraffe in many European zoos.

4. Compromised health

Giraffe in European zoos suffer from numerous captivity-associated health problems, including nutritional disease and lameness, and their longevity is reduced, with many failing to reach more than 15 years of age.

One survey showed that 54% of giraffe groups in EAZA-member zoos reported at least one case of overgrown hooves, laminitis, joint problems, or a combination of all three.

Insufficient exercise, nutritional imbalances, inappropriate enclosure substrates and trauma are thought to contribute to overgrown hooves, and suboptimal diet is likely a factor in the development of laminitis.

Giraffe in zoos also commonly suffer from trauma, including entrapment, entanglement, slips and falls, and all too often this can be fatal.

5. Stereotypic behaviours

These repetitive behaviours observed in captive animals are induced by frustration, repeated attempts to cope, and/or central nervous system dysfunction, and have been linked with poor animal welfare.

Giraffe are prone to stereotypic behaviours in captivity, particularly oral stereotypic behaviours involving the tongue, and pacing.

It is thought that they have developed behavioural disturbances in almost every zoo and that giraffe and okapi together are the species with the largest number of animals affected by stereotypic behaviours in the global zoo animal population.

How could a captivity phase-out be achieved?

Dr Jayson continued: “A strategic and humane phase-out of giraffe in European zoos would require careful planning.

An end to breeding would be a first step, as not adding to the captive population would mean that, over time, as animals die ‘naturally’, the captive population would start to shrink.

To improve the welfare of giraffe remaining in captivity, social grouping, environment, nutrition, health and stereotypic behaviours of giraffe should be assessed at each zoo and changes made to improve the lives of individual animals.

Where appropriate, this may involve consolidating animal collections to provide more appropriate social grouping and to house remaining giraffe within the largest, most complex environments possible.

Giraffe photography by Kate on Conservation
Living naturally at Shamwari Game Reserve, South Africa

Born Free is urging zoos to direct funding towards protecting giraffe in the wild, instead of spending money on the continued breeding and expansion of captive giraffe collections in Europe. Edinburgh Zoo has reportedly spent £2.7 million on a new giraffe enclosure.

Dr Nikki Tagg, Head of Conservation at Born Free, added: “Such financial resources be better applied to support wild giraffe conservation, securing and restoring vast landscapes and reversing habitat degradation, fragmentation, and loss.

“This level of investment could potentially bring significant benefits to wild giraffe, connecting and protecting natural habitat in north Kenya, Somalia, and Tanzania, as well as increasing community awareness and engagement, conflict mitigation and anti-poaching efforts.”

Find out more at www.bornfree.org.uk/raise-the-red-flag

kate on conservation wildlife blog logo

Learn more about Born Free

  • The Wind of Change: 35 years of Born Free
  • What happened at Born Free’s 30th Anniversary
  • My involvement with Born Free

Find out more about the zoo debate

  • New film raises awareness of zoo animals’ welfare issues
  • British Zoos — their politics and history
  • I suppose it all starts with zoos…
  • Be the one traveler, long I stood
  • Conservation: the cons, count downs and continuations
  • A lifelong love of animals

Learn more about elephants in captivity

  • Jumbo the Elephant – London Zoo’s most famous resident
  • The Elephant in the Room film
  • Elephants – Captivity vs. Paradise

Learn more about lions in captivity

  • Big Cats in captivity
  • Claws Out film exposes the truth about volunteering with lions in South Africa
  • Claws Out: Beth Jennings interview
  • YouthForLions: Breaking the captive lion cycle
  • Big Cats in captivity

Learn more about great apes in captivity

  • Harambe the silverback gorilla and the question of captivity

Learn more about orca in captivity

  • SeaWorld: Behold, the great water circus!
  • Killer whales in captivity: guest post by Ben Stockwell
  • Blackfish Tilikum: An homage to his memory and a promise to myself

The post 5 ways captivity is bad for giraffe wellbeing appeared first on Kate on Conservation.


Read full article on Environmental conservation